No matter where you are in Italy, you can dial 113 in case of emergency: the call will be directed to the local police. Not all 113 operators speak English, so you may want to ask a local person to place the call. Asking the operator for "pronto soccorso" (first aid and also the emergency room of a hospital) should get you an ambulanza (ambulance). If you just need a doctor, ask for "un medico."
Italy has the carabinieri (national police force, their emergency number is 112 from anywhere in Italy) as well as the polizia (local police force). Both are armed and have the power to arrest and investigate crimes. Always report the loss of your passport to the caribinieri as well as to your embassy. When reporting a crime, you'll be asked to fill out una denuncia (official report); keep a copy for your insurance company.
Pharmacies are generally open weekdays 8:30–1 and 4–8, and Saturday 9–1. Local pharmacies rotate covering the off-hours in shifts: on the door of every pharmacy is a list of which pharmacies in the vicinity will be open late.
U.S. Consulate Florence. Lungarno Vespucci 38, Florence, Tuscany. 055/266951; florence.usconsulate.gov.
U.S. Consulate Milan. Via Principe Amedeo 2/10, Milan, Lombardy. 02/290351; milan.usconsulate.gov.
U.S. Consulate Naples. Piazza della Repubblica, Naples, Campania. 081/5838111; naples.usconsulate.gov.
General Emergency Contacts
Emergencies. 115; 118.